Trusted IP Ranges define a list of IP addresses from which users can log in without receiving a login challenge for verification of their identity, such as a code sent to their mobile phone. i.e. Identity confirmation
Login IP range You can control login access on a user’s profile by specifying a range of IP addresses. When you define IP address restrictions for a profile, any login from a restricted IP address is denied.
Using Login IP Ranges for Stronger User Security - https://developer.salesforce.com/blogs/tech-pubs/2015/09/login-ip-ranges-security.html